Grading

Heartsound library

Károly Vörös, Jan Ehlers, Christin Kleinsorgen, Ingo Nolte

Department and Clinic of Internal Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine Budapest, István u. 2., 1078 Budapest, Hungary

ice President Witten/Herdecke University, Faculty of Health, Personality Psychology and Diagnostics, Alfred-Herrhausen-Straße 50; D-58448 Witten, Germany

ZELDA – Centre for E-Learning, Didactics and Educational Research, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bünteweg 2; D-30559 Hannover, Germany

Small Animal Clinic of the Veterinary University of Hannover, Foundation, Bünteweg 9, D-30559 Hanover, Germany

 

 

Grading system of canine heart murmurs according to murmur intensitiy

Canine systolic heart murmurs demonstrating murmur intensities

Good quality headphones or loudspeakers (capable to transmit all frequency components) are necessary to hear the sounds at best quality.

 

Grading, mp3-files and description of the intensity of the murmur:

 

Based on: Ettinger, S.J.-Feldmann E.C. (2010): Textbook of veterinary internal medicine. Diseases of the dog and cat, 7th ed., Saunders Elsevier , St. Luis. This grading system was adopted from the human cardiology, first described by Levine and Freeman in 1933