Genome-based test for left abomasal displacement in German Holsteins.

Abomasal displacement is a disease with a high genetic disposition that can lead to large economic losses in dairy farms. At the Institute for Animal Breeding and Genetics, a genetic test for abomasal displacement in German Holsteins has now been developed and is recommended for all insemination bulls of this breed. In this way, it can be confirmed with a certainty of about 80% whether genetic predispositions for abomasal displacement can be passed on from the respective bulls to their daughters. It is thus possible to significantly reduce the prevalence of abomasal displacement in dairy cows. The duration of the test is about 8 weeks and the cost is in the range of 2,500 Euros per insemination bull for single samples. These test costs are reduced for larger sample quantities as follows:

from 12 samples: 1.000 Euro per animal

from 24 samples: 700 Euro per animal

from 48 samples: 500 Euro per animal

from 96 samples: 400 Euro per animal

The total sample quantity must be announced in advance and must be received by the Institute for Animal Breeding and Genetics within a time frame of 2 weeks in order to receive the price reduction. For sample quantities significantly larger than those mentioned and for farmers, price information will be provided upon request.

Contact details:

Prof. Dr. Ottmar Distl
Institute for Animal Breeding and Genetics
University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover Foundation
Bünteweg 17P
30559 Hanover
Tel: 0511-9538875
Fax: 0511-9538582
E-mail

Left-sided abomasal displacement Download Documents

More Information

Genome-based test for left-sided abomasal displacement in German Holsteins.

Abomasal displacement is an economically important and heritable disease in dairy cows. Heritability (heritability) for left-sided abomasal displacement has been estimated to range from 12% to 53% in the threshold model (Wolf et al., 2001a, Hamann et al., 2004, Ricken et al., 2004). The first case report of abomasal displacement dates back to 1898, but only since the 1950s - since the increased breeding away from the old dual-purpose breeds to pure dairy breeds - the occurrence of this disease has been reported more frequently. The abomasum may be displaced to the left or right side of the abdomen. Left-sided abomasal displacement is by far the most common form, accounting for 85-95% of cases (Constable et al. 1992). In Holstein cows, abomasal displacement has been studied particularly intensively. The prevalence for left-sided abomasal displacement ranged from 1.2% to 2.6% in German Holsteins (Wolf et al. 2001, Hamann et al. 2004), and as high as 5.5% in US Holsteins (Detilleux et al. 1997). Left abomasal displacement usually occurs shortly before calving and up to eight weeks after calving. Because abomasal displacement massively affects general condition, feed intake, and metabolism, major economic problems are also associated with this disease. For example, according to Detilleux et al. (1997), milk yield is reduced by 557 kg in the first 60 days after left abomasal displacement compared to healthy cows. Geishauser et al (1998) studied milk, fat and protein yield in lactation of diseased cows compared with control animals. They found a reduction of 316 kg in milk yield and a 12 kg reduction in fat and 10 kg reduction in protein in milk. Similar values were found by Ricken (2003) with a 386 kg reduction in milk yield and 12.7 and 13.5 kg reductions in fat and protein, respectively. In the studies of Wolf et al. (2001), the milk quantity in lactation with abomasal displacement was even reduced by 1016 kg compared to grain troll animals. Fat quantity and protein quantity were reduced here by 41 kg and 36 kg, respectively. On average, between 37.9% and 47.7% of all cows suffering from left abomasal displacement leave the farm within one year after the disease (Ricken et al., 2005, Wolf et al., 2001a). This falls under the umbrella term "other reasons" in the causes of departure. Left abomasal displacement is usually treated surgically, with the abomasum degassed and connected to the abdominal wall in the correct position.

Due to the high heritability, the genetic background of left-sided abomasal displacement was investigated at the Institute of Animal Breeding and Inheritance Research. For this purpose, highly associated genomic regions for left-sided abomasal displacement were identified based on extensive sampling from the entire German Holstein population. These provide the basis for a new genome-based test for left-sided abomasal displacement. This genomic test allows identification of hereditary disposition for left-sided abomasal displacement with 80% confidence (r2). Testing of insemination bulls can thus significantly reduce the risk of left-sided abomasal displacement in their daughters. To perform the test, an EDTA blood sample of 5 ml or three semen straws are required.

Literature

Constable, P. D., G. Y. Miller, G. F. Hoffsis, B. L. Hull, and D. M. Rings. 1992. Risk factors for abomasal volvulus and left abomasal displacement in cattle. Am. J. Vet. Res. 53:1184-1192.

Hamann, H., V. Wolf, H. Scholz and O. Distl. 2004. Relationships between lactational  incidence of displaced abomasum and milk production traits in German Holstein cows. J. Vet. Med. A. 51:203–208.

Detilleux, J. C., Y. T. Gröhn, S. W. Eicker, and R. L. Quaas. 1997. Effects of left displaced abomasum  on test day milk yields of Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 80:121-126.

Geishauser, T., M. Shoukri, D. Kelton, and K. Leslie. 1998. Analysis of survivorship after displaced abomasum is diagnosed in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 81:2346-2353.

Hamann, H., V. Wolf, H. Scholz, and O. Distl. 2004. Relationships between lactational incidence of displaced abomasum and milk production traits in German Holstein cows. J. Vet. Med. A. Physiol. Pathol. Clin. Med. 51:203-208.

Ricken, M. 2003. Labmagenverlagerung beim Rind: Analyse von genetischen Faktoren und ökonomischen Auswirkungen auf die Milchproduktion. Dissertation, Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover.

Ricken, M., H. Hamann, H. Scholz, and O. Distl. 2004. [Genetic analysis of the prevalence for abomasal displacement and its relation to milk performance traits in German Holstein cows]. Dtsch. tierärztl. Wschr. 111:366-370.

Wolf, V., H. Hamann, H. Scholz, and O. Distl. 2001a. [Influences on the occurrence of abomasal displacements in German Holstein cows]. Dtsch. tierärztl. Wschr. 108:403-408.

Wolf, V., H. Hamann, H. Scholz, and O. Distl. 2001b. [Systematic influences on the development of abomasal displacements in German Holstein cows]. Züchtungskunde 73:257-265.

Instructions for performing the genetic test

LMV testing can be performed using semen or EDTA blood samples.

 (1) Use of semen samples

  1. please send at least 3 semen samples of the bull to be tested. Name and life or herd book number should be noted on the pailette. If this is not the case, please send the samples in a labeled, sealed tube. Fill the corresponding information sheet (separate sheets for each sex) completely.
  2. the samples can be sent unrefrigerated.
  3. the shipment should be made as soon as possible. However, in no case on Friday or Saturday. In this case, please keep the pailettes frozen until Monday or store them in the refrigerator (approx. 4o C) and only then send them.
  4. If the test cannot be performed due to insufficient quality of the samples, you will be informed immediately. You will be informed immediately.

(2) Collection of EDTA blood samples

  1. the blood sample should be taken as sterile as possible
  2. the sample tube must contain the anticoagulant EDTA.
  3. at least 5 ml of blood should be collected by the veterinarian.
  4. please label the sample with the identity of the bovine and fill in the corresponding (depending on the sex of the animal) completely.
  5. the sample should be sent as soon as possible. However, in no case on Friday or Saturday. In this case please store the blood in the refrigerator (approx. 4o C) until Monday and only then send it.
  6.  if the test is not feasible due to insufficient quality of the samples, you will be informed immediately. You will be informed immediately.

 
Please send the samples to:

Prof. Dr. Ottmar Distl
LMV-Test
Institute for Animal Breeding and Genetics
University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover Foundation
Bünteweg 17p
30559 Hanover
Phone: 0511-953-8876
Fax: 0511-953-8582
E-mail

(3) Invoice
The invoice will be sent immediately after receipt of the samples together with the confirmation of receipt to the animal owner or the contact person of the insemination station.
Payment of the invoice amount in advance by bank transfer is required for the test to be performed. Costs for the LMV test are per bovine animal:

1 sample: 2.500 Euro per animal

from 12 samples: 1.000 Euro per animal

from 24 samples: 700 Euro per animal

from 48 samples: 500 Euro per animal

from 96 samples: 400 Euro per animal
            
(4) Test results
A period of about eight weeks is usually required to perform the test. Please note, however, that the test period may vary depending on the quality of the sample. The results will be kept strictly confidential and will be sent to the sender in writing.
The test order includes a scientific utilization of the results. When using the data for scientific purposes, all information will be anonymized so that no conclusions can be drawn about the identity of the cattle, the owner and the breeder.